Definitions of some terms used in linguistics and rhetoric

This file is adapted from the list of language terms in the September 1997 version of Mark Israel's AUE FAQ.
You can see Mark's list here.


For links to a number of Web sites dealing with rhetoric vocabulary, go here.

Jump to index.

In compiling this list of definitions, I've used, in addition to the Oxford University Press dictionary cited above, material from the following Web sites:

<http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/FLOWERS.HTM>
    Silva Rhetoricae Flowers of Rhetoric from BYU.
    (C) 1996-2001, Gideon O. Burton, Brigham Young University.
<http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm>
    A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices
    Robert Harris
    Version Date: August 19, 1997
    Copyright 1997 Robert Harris
<http://www.wam.umd.edu/~gaines/style.html>
    An Introduction to Rhetorical Style Robert N. Gaines (C) 1998. All rights reserved.
<http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html>
    skb list o' nifty words, with definitions, from S. Baum
    Dept. of Oceanography TAMU.
<http://www.bartleby.com/81/10615.html>
<http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/SS/SS051.html>
<http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~chambers/ling%20&%20lg.html>
<http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/issues/5/5-590.html>
<http://www.geocities.com/wmotc/facts.htm>
<http://www.globalideasbank.org/BOV/BV-456.HTML>
<http://grad.math.arizona.edu/~ropp/defs.html>
<http://jinx.sistm.unsw.edu.au/~greenlft/1993/126/126p15.htm>
<http://www.julianburnside.com/> (Click on "Words and Language")
<http://lfa.atu.edu/Brucker/Fog.html>
<http://www.lineone.net/dictionaryof/difficultwords/d0004727.html>
<http://www.logophilia.com/WordSpy/index.html>
<http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/help/easy.htm>
<http://math.rice.edu/~sschang/myfiles.d/zeugma.html>
<http://members.aol.com/tsuwm/Frame1.html>
<http://members.aol.com/tsuwm/mno.htm#M>
<http://www.netfunny.com/rhf/jokes/89q2/disease.350.html>
<http://newsuk.thenetzone.co.uk/archives/311099.shtml>
<http://www.percepp.demon.co.uk/parisb.htm>
<http://rinkworks.com/words/linguistics.shtml>
<http://sunsite.ubc.ca/LatinDictionary/>
<http://sunsite.ubc.ca/LatinDictionary/HyperText/>
<http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/c/cledonism_or_cledonomantia.html>
<http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/1299>
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/150732>
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/152486>
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/570754>

I've also taken material from the following books:

Glossary of Linguistic Terminology, by Mario Pei, Columbia University Press, copyright 1966 by Mario Pei

The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers, Random House, New York, copyright © 1984, 1990 by David Grambs.

Click on a letter to go to words in the index beginning with that letter.

Note:  For reasons unknown to me, the letter index doesn't work with Netscape 4.75 or Netscape 6.1.  It works with Opera 5.0 and Internet Explorer 5.5.  I'll be trying to learn more about this.  Meanwhile, you can use the scroll bar to step through the list of terms.

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

What is the language term for...?

It may be one of:

ablaut accidence acrolect adianoeta adnominal
adnominatio adynaton agnosia agrammatism alexia
alliteration alphabetism amblysia amphibol(og)y anacolouthon
anacrusis anadiplosis anaphora anaptyxis anastrophe
antiphrasis antisthecon anthimeria antonomasia aphaeresis
aphasia aphesis apocope apocrisis aporia
apophasis aposiopesis apostrophe aptronym asyndeton
Aufhebung banausic bisociation brachylogy cacoetheses
scribendi
cacophemism calque catachresis cataphora catenative
cheville chiasmus chronogram cledonism commoratio
consonance constative coprolalia copulative crasis
cruciverbalist cryptophasia deictic dilogy disjunctive
dissimilation dittograph dontopedalogy dysgraphia dyslalia
dyslexia dysphemism dysprosody dysrhythmia echolalia
embo(lo)lalia enallage enclitic endophoric epanalepsis
epanorthosis epexegetic epenthesis epitrope epizeuxis
eponym equivoque etymon eusystolism exergasia
exonym exophoric extraposition eye-word factitive
festination fis phenomenon Fog Index frequentative glossogenetics
glossolalia glottochronology glyph graphospasm hapax legomenon
haplograph haplology hendiadys heteric heterogenium
heterography heteronym heterophemy heterotopy hobson-jobson
holophrasis honorific hypallage hyperbaton hyperbole
hypocoristic hypophora hyponymy hypostatize hypotaxis
idiogloss[i]a idiolect idiolalia illeism ingressive
isocolon isogloss klang association koine langue
Lautgesetz ligature lipogram litotes logogram
logogriph logomisia lucus a non
lucendo
macaronic macrology
meiosis (a)melioration mendaciloquence merism metalepsis
metallage metanalysis metaplasm metathesis metonymy
Mischsprache mogigraphia mondegreen monepic monologophobia
Mummerset mumpsimus mussitation mytheme noa word
nomic nosism nothosonomia objective
correlative
obviative
omphalopsychites onomasiology onomastic onomatopoeia oratio obliqua
oxytone palindrome palinode pangram paradiastole
paragoge paragram paralinguistic paraph paraphasia
paraplasm parasynesis parataxis parechesis parelcon
parimion parole paronomasia paronym paroxytone
parrhesia pasigraphy patavinity patronymic pejoration
periphrasis perpilocutionist phatic philophronesis phonaesthesia
phonocentrism pleonasm ploce polyptoton polysemy
polysyndeton privative proclitic prolepsis proparalepsis
prosonomasia prosopopoeia prosthesis provection psittacism
purr-word quadriliteralism quaesitio quote fact rebus
reification rheme rhopalic sandhi scesis onomaton
Schlimmbesserung semiotics sigmatism simile [snarl word]
Sprachgefühl Stammbaumtheorie stichomythia subreption sumpsimus
superordinate suprasegmental syllepsis symploce synaeresis
synaesthesia synaloepha synchysis syncope synecdoche
synesis systole tachygraphy tautology theophoric
tmesis traduttori
traditori
trope univocalic Ursprache
Wanderwort Wellentheorie Witzelsucht wordfact xenoepist
zeugma

Definitions:

ablaut /"ablaUt/ n.M19. [G, f. ab off + Laut sound.]
Philol. Vowel change in related words, esp. that in Indo- European, which survives in English in,
e.g., sing, sang, sung, song.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

accidence /"aksId(<schwa>)ns/ n.2E16.
[Late L accidentia neut. pl. pres. pple of accidere taken as fem. sing.: see next, -ENCE.]
The part of grammar which deals with the variable forms of words (inflections etc.). E16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

acrolect n. [-LECT] Ling. the dialect or variety of any language with the greatest prestige M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

adianoeta
An expression that, in addition to an obvious meaning, carries a second, subtle meaning (often at variance with the
ostensible meaning).
Related Figures
irony
Adianoeta is a kind of irony, since it uses terms that imply a different meaning than they denote; however, adianoeta
counts on carrying both its meanings, playing off how different audiences will understand the same locution (one,
literally; the other, ironically).
allegory
Like adiamonta, allegory employs both the surface meaning or literal use of words as well as the symbolic meanings
of words.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/VERIFICANDA/ADIANOETA.HTM>

adnominal /<schwa>d"nQmIn(<schwa>)l/ a. & n.M19. [f. L adnomin-, -men (var. of AGNOMEN) + -AL1.]
Gram. (A word or phrase) modifying a noun.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

adnominatio - (Also spelled agnominatio agnomination )
1.A synonym for paronomasia.
2.A synonym for polyptoton.
3.Assigning to a proper name its literal or homophonic meaning.
Example(of #3)
Mr. Oake, with his 5' 3" stature, really seemed more of an acorn.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Redirect/ADNOMINATIO.HTM>

a-dyn'-a-ton - from Gk. a, "without" and dynasthai, "to be able" (="powerless") (Also adynata impossibilia)
A declaration of impossibility, usually in terms of an exaggerated comparison.
Sometimes, the expression of the impossibility of expression.
Examples
I will sooner have a beard grow in the palm of my hand than he shall
get one of his cheek , --Shakespeare 2 Henry IV 1.2.20-22
I cannot speak enough of this content
It stops me here; it is too much of joy.
--Shakespeare, Othello 2.1.196-97
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/ADYNATON.HTM>

agnosia /<schwa>g"n<schwa>UsI<schwa>/ n.E20.
[Gk agnosia ignorance, f. A-10 + gnosis knowledge: -IA1.]
Med. A diminished ability to recognize objects by one or other of the senses.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

agrammatism /<schwa>"gram<schwa>tIz(<schwa>)m/ n.L19.
[f. Gk agrammatos illiterate, f. as A-10 + grammata letters, + - ISM.]
Med. An inability to form sentences grammatically, as a symptom of cerebral disease or mental illness.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

alexia /<schwa>"lEksI<schwa>, eI-/ n.L19.
[Irreg. f. A-10 + Gk lexis speech (conf. w. L legere read) + -IA1.]
Med. Inability to read, or to understand written words, as a result of brain disorder. Cf. DYSLEXIA.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

alliteration /<schwa>lIt<schwa>"reI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.E17.
[med.L alliteratio(n-), f. L ad AL-1 + littera letter + -ATION.]
1 gen. The commencement of adjacent or closely connected words with the same sound or letter; an
instance of this. E17.
2 As a principle of versification: in Old and Middle English and other Germanic poetry, the commencement
of certain accented syllables of a verse with the same consonant or consonantal group, or with any vowel
sounds; in some Celtic poetry also, commencement with consonants related by mutation. L18.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

alphabetism -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.hausarbeiten.de/rd/archiv/anglistik/angl-o-woform.shtml>

amblysia - phrasing in such a way as to forewarn or to cushion a dire announcement, but sometimes thereby alarming
in itself
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html>

amphibology /amfI"bQl<schwa>dZi/ n. Also in L form <obsolete>-gia.LME.
[(O)Fr. amphibologie f. late L amphibologia for cl.L amphibolia AMPHIBOLY: see -OLOGY.]
1 An ambiguity; a quibble. LME.
2 Ambiguous wording; equivocation. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anacoluthon /an<schwa>k<schwa>"lu:TQn, -T(<schwa>)n/ n. Pl. -tha /-T<schwa>/.E18.
[Late L f. Gk anakolouthon neut. sing. of adj. = lacking sequence, f. as AN-5 + akolouthos following.]
A sentence or construction lacking grammatical sequence.
anacoluthia n. = ANACOLUTHON M19. anacoluthic a. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anacrusis /an<schwa>"kru:sIs/ n. Pl. -cruses /-"kru:si:z/.M19.
[mod.L f. Gk anakrousis prelude, f. anakrouein, f. as ANA- + krouein to strike.]
1 Pros. An unstressed syllable at the beginning of a verse. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anadiplosis /an<schwa>dI"pl<schwa>UsIs/ n. Pl. -ploses /-"pl<schwa>Usi:z/.M16.
[Gk anadiplosis, f. anadiploun to double: see ANA-, DIPLO-, - OSIS.]
Rhet. Reduplication; the beginning of a sentence, line, or clause with the concluding, or any prominent,
word of the one preceding; an instance of this.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anaphora /<schwa>"naf(<schwa>)r<schwa>/ n.L16.
[Branch I f. L f. Gk = repetition, f. as ANA- + pherein carry; branch II f. late Gk.]
I 1 Rhet. The repetition of the same word or phrase in several successive clauses. L16.
2 Ling. The use of an expression which refers to or stands for an earlier word or group of words. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anaptyxis /an<schwa>p"tIksIs/ n.L19.
[mod.L f. Gk anaptuxis unfolding, f. as ANA- + ptuxis folding.]
Phonet. The development of a vowel between two consonants. anaptyctic a. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anastrophe /<schwa>"nastr<schwa>fi/ n.M16.
[Gk anastrophe turning back, f. as ANA- + strephein to turn.]
Rhet. Inversion or unusual order of words or clauses.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

anthimeria - an-thi-mer'-i-a
Substitution of one part of speech for another (typically, a noun used as a verb).
Examples
    I've been Republicaned all I care to be this election year.
         Noun used as verb.
     Did you see the way those blockers defenced on that last play?
         Noun used as verb.
     Feel bad? Strike up some music and have a good sing.
         Verb used as noun.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/ANTHIMERIA.HTM>

antiphrasis /an"tIfr<schwa>sIs/ n. Pl. -ases /-<schwa>si:z/.M18.
[Late L f. Gk, f. antiphrazein express by the opposite, f. as ANTI- + phrazein indicate, declare, tell.]
Rhet. Use of words in a sense opposite to their customary meaning.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

antisthecon - Substitution of one sound, syllable, or letter for another within a word. A kind of metaplasm. Example: The following pun is accomplished only through antisthecon, substituting "o" for "a" in the word "reward": "A pun is its own reword"
-- Silva Rhetoricae http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/ANTISTHECON.HTM

antonomasia /ant<schwa>n<schwa>"meIzI<schwa>/ n.M16.
[L f. Gk, f. antonomazein name instead, f. as ANTI- + onoma name: see -IA1.]
The substitution of an epithet etc. or the name of an office or dignity, for a proper name (e.g. the
Iron Duke for Wellington). Also, conversely, the use of a proper name to express a general idea (e.g. a
Solomon for 'a wise man').
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

aphaeresis /<schwa>"fI<schwa>rIsIs/ n. Also *apher-. Pl. -eses /-Isi:z/.M16.
[Late L f. Gk aphairesis, f. aphairein take away, f. APH- + hairein take.]
The loss of a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word.
aphaeretic /afI"rEtIk/ a. of the nature of aphaeresis L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

aphasia /<schwa>"feIzI<schwa>/ n.M19.
[Gk, f. aphatos speechless, f. A-10 + phanai speak: see -IA1.]
Loss or impairment of the faculty of speech or of understanding of language (or both), due to cerebral
disease or damage.BROCA’s aphasia. SEMANTIC aphasia.
sensory aphasia: see SENSORY a. WERNICKE’s aphasia.
aphasiac a. & n. (rare) = APHASIC M19.
aphasic a. & n. (a person) affected with aphasia; of or pertaining to aphasia: M19.
aphasi'ology n. the study and treatment of aphasia M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

aphesis /"afIsIs/ n. Pl. -eses /-Isi:z/.L19.
[Gk = letting go, f. aphienai, f. APH- + hienai let go, send.]
Aphaeresis; spec. the loss of an unaccented vowel at the beginning of a word (e.g. of e from esquire
to form squire).
a'phetic a. pertaining to or resulting from aphesis L19.
a'phetically adv. L19.
aphetism n. (a word formed by) aphesis L19.
aphetize v.t. shorten by aphesis L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

apocope /<schwa>"pQk<schwa>pi/ n.M16.
[Late L f. Gk apokope, f. apokoptein cut off, f. APO- + koptein to cut.]
The loss of one or more letters or syllables at the end of a word.
apocopate v.t. remove or shorten by apocope E19.
apoco'pation n. M18.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

apocrisis - replying to one's own arguments
-- http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html

aporia /<schwa>"p<revc>:rI<schwa>, <schwa>"pQrI<schwa>/ n.M16.
[Late L f. Gk, f. aporos impassable, f. A-10 + poros: see prec., -IA1.]
1 Rhet. The expression of doubt. M16.
2 A doubtful matter, a perplexing difficulty. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

apophasisApophasis (also called praeteritio or occupatio) asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses. Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or inflammatory facts or statements while he remains apparently detached from them.
Amusing example:
    I pass over the fact that Jenkins beats his wife, is an alcoholic,
    and sells dope to kids, because we will not allow personal matters
    to enter into our political discussion.
-- Copyright 1997 Robert Harris <http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm>

aposiopesis - Breaking off suddenly in the middle of speaking, usually to portray being overcome with emotion.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/APOSIOPESIS.HTM>

apostrophe - Apostrophe interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent. Its most common purpose in prose is to give vent to or display intense emotion, which can no longer be held back: Apostrophe does not appear very often in argumentative writing because formal argument is by its nature fairly restrained and intellectual rather than emotional; but under the right circumstances an apostrophe could be useful: -- Copyright 1997 Robert Harris <http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm>

aptronym - a name befitting the occupation, role or nature of a person or character, e.g. Doctor Sawbones
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html>

asyndeton - The omission of conjunctions between clauses, often resulting in a hurried rhythm or vehement effect. Example:
        Veni, vidi, vinci (Caesar: "I came; I saw; I conquered")
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/ASYNDETON.HTM>

Aufhebung -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/help/easy.htm>

banausic (adj.) - common, ordinary, and undistinguished; dull and insipid
banausic /b<schwa>"n<revc>:sIk/ a. derog.M19. [Gk banausikos of or for artisans: see -IC.]
Suitable for artisans; uncultivated; materialistic.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

bisociation -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.globalideasbank.org/BOV/BV-456.HTML>

brachylogy /br<schwa>"kIl<schwa>dZi/ n. Also (earlier) in L form [Late L brachylogia f. Gk brakhulogia: see BRACHY-, -LOGY.]
Concise speech; a concise expression.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cacoethes scribendi /skrI"bEndi:/ an irresistible desire to write.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cacophemism (n.) - an unfairly harsh or derogatory word or description.
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#E>

calque /kalk/ n. & v.M20. [Fr. = copy, tracing, f. as CALK v.2]
n. A loan-translation (of, on). M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

catachresis /kat<schwa>"kri:sIs/ n. Pl. -chreses /-"kri:si:z/.M16.
[L catachresis f. Gk katakhresis, f. katakhresthai to misuse, f. as CATA- + khresthai use.]
(An instance of) the incorrect use of words.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cataphora /k<schwa>"taf(<schwa>)r<schwa>/ n.M16.
[In sense 1 f. Gk kataphora, f. as CATA- + pherein carry; in sense 2 f. CATA- after ANAPHORA.]
1 Med. (An attack of) pathological sleepiness. Now rare. M16.
2 Ling. The use of an expression which refers to or stands for a later word or group of words. L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

catenative
A verb that links the subject with a verbal form such as an infinitive or a gerund.  See
-- <http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/gerunds.htm#catenatives>


cheville /<long s><schwa>vi:j/ n. Pl. pronounced same. L19. [Fr. = peg, pin, plug.]
1 A meaningless or redundant word or phrase inserted to round off a sentence or complete a verse. L19.
2 A peg in a stringed musical instrument. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

chiasmus /kVI"azm<schwa>s, kI-/ n. Pl. -mi /-mVI/.M17.
[mod.L f. Gk khiasmos, f. khiazein mark with a chi, f. khi CHI.]
1 gen. A diagonal or crosswise arrangement. rare. M17.
2 Rhet. The inversion in a second phrase or clause of the order of words in the first. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

chronogram /"krQn<schwa>gram/ n.E17. [f. prec. + -GRAM.]
A phrase etc. of which the roman-numeral letters express a date when added together
(e.g. LorD haVe MerCIe Vpon Vs = 50 + 500 + 5 + 1000 + 100 + 1 + 5 + 5 = 1666).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cledonism -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/c/cledonism_or_cledonomantia.html>

commoratio - Dwelling on or returning to one's strongest argument. Latin equivalent for epimone.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/COMMORATIO.HTM>

consonance /"kQns(<schwa>)n<schwa>ns/ n.LME.
[(O)Fr., or L consonantia, f. consonant-: see next, -ANCE.]
2 Resemblance or correspondence of sounds, now esp. consonants, in different words or syllables. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

constative /"kQnst<schwa>tIv, k<schwa>n"steItIv/ a. & n.E20.
[f. L constat- pa. ppl stem of constare, after G konstatierend: see CONSTANT, -IVE.]
A adj. 1 Gram. Of a use of the aorist tense: indicating that the action has taken place,
rather than emphasizing its initiation or completion. E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

coprolalia - copro- /"kQpr<schwa>U/ comb. form of Gk kopros dung: see -O-.copro'lalia
n. the use of obscene language, esp. as a symptom of mental illness or organic brain disease L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

copulative /"kQpjUl<schwa>tIv/ a. & n.LME.
[(O)Fr. copulatif, -ive or late L copulativus, f. as COPULATE: see -IVE.]
A adj. 1 Serving to connect, esp. (Gram.) words or clauses that are joined in sense (opp.
disjunctive), or subject and predicate (or complement); involving such connection. LME.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

crasis /"kreIsIs/ n. Pl. crases /"kreIsi:z/.M16.
[Gk krasis mixture, combination.]
3 Gk Gram. The contraction of two adjacent vowels into one long vowel or diphthong,
esp. at the end of one word and beginning of the next. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cruciverbalist /kru:sI"v<schwa>:b(<schwa>)lIst/ n.L20.
[f. L crucis, crux cross + verbum word: see VERBALIST.]
An enthusiast for crossword puzzles; a compiler or solver of crossword puzzles.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

cryptophasia -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.geocities.com/wmotc/facts.htm>

deictic /"dVIktIk/ a. & n.E19.
[Gk deiktikos, f. deiktos vbl adj. of deiknunai to show: see -IC. Cf. DEIXIS.]
A adj. 1 Logic. Designating or pertaining to reasoning which proves directly.
Cf. ELENCTIC. E19.
2 Ling. Serving to relate that which is spoken of to the spatial and temporal
context of the utterance; spec. demonstrative. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dilogy /"dIl<schwa>dZi, "dVI-/ n.M17.
[L dilogia f Gk, f. dilogos, f. as DI-2 + logos saying, speech: see -LOGY.]
Rhet. (An) ambiguity.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

disjunctive /dIs"dZV<ng>ktIv/ n. & a.LME. [L disjunctivus, f. disjunct-: see prec., -IVE.]
A adj. 1 Gram. Of a conjunction: expressing an alternative, or implying an
adversative relation between the clauses it connects (opp. copulative). LME.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dissimilation /<ssm>dIsImI"leI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M19. [f. prec. after ASSIMILATION.]
2 spec. (Ling.) The differentiation of two identical sounds occurring near each other in a word by
the change of one of them, as purple from OE purpuran. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dittograph -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.lineone.net/dictionaryof/difficultwords/d0004727.html>

dontopedalogy -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://newsuk.thenetzone.co.uk/archives/311099.shtml>

dysgraphia /dIs"grafI<schwa>/ n.M20. [f. DYS- + Gk graphia writing.]
Difficulty in writing coherently, as a symptom of cerebral disease or damage. Cf. AGRAPHIA.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dyslalia n. a speech disorder, esp. one in which a person uses words or sounds peculiar to himself or herself M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dyslexia /dIs"lEksI<schwa>/ n.L19. [f. DYS- + Gk lexis speech (conf. w. L legere read) + -IA1.]
A developmental disorder marked by extreme difficulty in reading, or in understanding written
words; word- blindness. Cf. ALEXIA.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dysphemism /"dIsfImIz(<schwa>)m/ n.L19. [f. DYS- after euphemism.]
The substitution of a derogatory or unpleasant term for a pleasant or neutral one; a term
so used. Opp. EUPHEMISM.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dysprosody n. abnormality of speech inflection, stress, and rhythm, occurring in aphasia M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

dysrhythmia n. an abnormality of physiological rhythm, esp. in the electrical activity of the brain E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

echolalia /Ek<schwa>U"leIlI<schwa>/ n.L19. [mod.L, f. Gk ekho echo + -LALIA.] The meaningless repetition of words
and phrases, esp. as a sign of schizophrenia; repetition of speech by a child learning to talk.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

embolalia (n.) - the use of virtually meaningless filler words, phrases, or stammerings (or so-called
hesitation-forms) in speech, whether as unconscious utterings while arranging one's
thoughts or as a vacuous, inexpressive mannerism (W)
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#E>

enallage /I"nal<schwa>dZi, E-/ n. Now rare.E16.
[Late L f. Gk enallage, f. base of enallassein to exchange, f. as EN-2 + allassein to change,
f. allos other.]
The substitution of one grammatical form for another, as of singular for plural, present
for past tense, etc.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

enclitic /In"klItIk, En-/ a. & n.M17.
[Late L encliticus f. Gk egklitikos, f. egklinein lean on, f. as EN-2 + klinein to lean,
slope: see -IC.]
Gram.A adj. Designating a word so unemphatic as to be pronounced as if part of the preceding
word, and sometimes attached to it (as Eng. of in piece of, not in cannot, L -que and). M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

endophoric /End<schwa>"fQrIk/ a.L20. [f. prec. + -IC.] Ling. Referring to something within the text.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

epanalepsis /<ssm>Ep<schwa>n<schwa>"lEpsIs/ n.M16. [Gk epanalepsis repetition, f. lepsis a taking: see EPANA-.]
The repetition of a word or clause following intervening matter.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

epanorthosis - Amending a first thought by altering it to make it stronger or more vehement.  Example: "I am angry--no, I am furious about the delay."
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/EPANORTHOSIS.HTM>

epexegesis /E<ssm>pEksI"dZi:sIs/ n. Pl. -eses /-i:si:z/.L16.
[Gk epexegesis, f. as EPI-, EXEGESIS.] The addition of a word or words to clarify the meaning; the word(s)
so added. epexegetic /-"dZEt-/, epexegetical /-"dZEt-/ adjs. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

epenthesis /E"pEnTIsIs/ n. Pl. -eses /-Isi:z/.M16.
[Late L f. Gk, f. epenthe- stem of epentithenai insert, f. as EPI- + EN-2 + tithenai to place.]
The development of a sound or an unetymological letter in a word, e.g. the b in thimble.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

epitrope /I"pItr<schwa>pi, E-/ n.M16.
[Late L f. Gk epitrope, f. epitrepein yield, f. as EPI- + trepein to turn.]
Rhet. A figure of speech in which permission is given to an opponent, either seriously or ironically.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

epizeuxis /EpI"zju:ksIs/ n.L16. [Late L f. Gk, f. as EPI- + zeuxis yoking, f. zeugnunai to yoke.]
Rhet. The vehement or emphatic repetition of a word.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

eponym /"Ep<schwa>nIm/ n.M19.
[Gk eponumos given as a name, giving one’s name to a thing or person, f. as EPI- + -O- + -NYM.]
A person whose name has given rise (in fact or by repute) to the name of a people, place,
institution, etc.; a personal name used as a common noun or used to form a common noun. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

equivoque /"i:kwIv<schwa>Uk, "E-/ a. & n. Also -voke.LME.
[(O)Fr. équivoque or late L aequivocus: see EQUIVOCAL.]
An expression capable of more than one meaning; a pun; wordplay, punning. E17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

etymon /"EtImQn/ n. Pl. -mons, -ma /-m<schwa>/.L16.
[L f. Gk etumon use as n. of neut. sing. of etumos true.]
A word from which some given word is derived by borrowing, modification, etc. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

eusystolism (n.) - the use of initials, instead of full words, in the interests of delicacy, e.g. SOB
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#E>

exergasia - repeating a point by using different figures of speech to give the impression of saying something new
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#E>

exonym n. a place-name other than that used by the residents of the place concerned M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

exophoric /Eks<schwa>"fQrIk/ a.E20. [f. EXOPHORIA (& EXOPHORA) + -IC.]
Ling. Referring to something outside the text. L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

extraposition /Ekstr<schwa>p<schwa>"ZI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.E20. [f. EXTRA- + POSITION n.]
Gram. The placing of a word or group of words outside or at the end of a clause instead of
within, while retaining the sense, as in the rain, it raineth every day.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

eye-word -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers

factitive /"faktItIv/ a. & n.M19. [mod.L factitivus, irreg. f. L factitare frequent. of facere do, make: see -IVE.]
Gram.A adj. Of a verb: expressing the notion of making a thing to be of a certain
character (e.g. paint the door green). Also designating the object etc. of such a verb. M19.
B n. A factitive verb. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

festination (n.) - walking faster and faster involuntarily
festination /fEstI"neI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M16. [L festinatio(n-), f. as prec.: see -ATION.]
1 Haste, speed. Now rare. M16.
2 Med. A gait with short fast tottering steps that occurs in some cases of Parkinson’s
disease. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

fis phenomenon -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://rinkworks.com/words/linguistics.shtml>

Fog Index -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://lfa.atu.edu/Brucker/Fog.html>

frequentative /frI"kwEnt<schwa>tIv/ a. & n.M16.
[Fr. fréquentatif, -ive or L frequentativus, f. frequent-: see FREQUENT a., -ATIVE.]
Gram.A adj. Of a verb, verbal form, or conjugation: expressing frequent repetition
or intensity of action, as English chatter, dribble, twinkle, etc. M16.
B n. A frequentative verb, verbal form, or conjugation. M16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

glossogenetics -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.percepp.demon.co.uk/parisb.htm>

glossolalia /glQs<schwa>"leIlI<schwa>/ n. Also glossa-.L19.
[f. GLOSSO- + -LALIA, w. allus. to Acts 10:46, 1 Cor. 14:6, 23.]
The gift of speaking with tongues (see TONGUE n. 6c).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

glottochronology /<ssm>glQt<schwa>Ukr<schwa>"nQl<schwa>dZi/ n.M20.
[f. GLOTTO- + CHRONOLOGY.]
Ling. The use of statistics to determine the degree of relationship between
two or more languages and the chronology of their divergence from a common source.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

glyph /glIf/ n.L18. [Fr. glyphe f. Gk gluphe carving, rel. to gluphein carve.]
1 Archit. An ornamental groove or channel, usu. vertical. L18.
2 A sculptured character or symbol. E19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

graphospasm (n.) - a writer's cramp (B)
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#G>

hapax legomenon
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://math.rice.edu/~sschang/myfiles.d/zeugma.html>

haplography /hap"lQgr<schwa>fi/ n.L19. [f. HAPLO- + -GRAPHY.]
Palaeogr. The inadvertent writing of a letter, word, etc., once, when it
should have been repeated. Opp. dittography.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

haplology /hap"lQl<schwa>dZi/ n.L19. [f. HAPLO- + -LOGY.]
The utterance of one letter, syllable, or word instead of two (as idolatry
for idololatry).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hendiadys /hEn"dVI<schwa>dIs/ n.L16. [med.L, f. Gk hen dia duoin lit. 'one through two’.]
A figure of speech in which a single complex idea is expressed by two words usu. connected by
and (e.g. nice and warm for nicely warm).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

heteric -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers

heterogenium - Avoiding an issue by changing the subject to something different. Sometimes considered a vice.
Examples - Has our logging company endangered the spotted owl? I'll tell you what we've endangered: the
unemployment rate in Oregon.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/HETEROGENIUM.HTM>

heterography /hEt<schwa>"rQgr<schwa>fi/ n.L18. [f. HETERO- + -GRAPHY, after orthography.]
Unconventional or incorrect spelling.
hetero'graphic a. of, pertaining to, or characterized by heterography M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

heteronym /"hEt(<schwa>)r<schwa>(U)nIm/ n.L19. [f. HETERO- + -NYM.]
1 Each of two or more words identical in spelling but distinct in sound and meaning.
Cf. HOMONYM, SYNONYM. L19.
2 A word in one language which is a translation of the designation in another language.
Opp. PARONYM 2. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

heterophemy heterophemy
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, © Arthur S. Reber 1995 via
      
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/150732>

heterotopia /hEt(<schwa>)r<schwa>(U)"t<schwa>UpI<schwa>/
n. Also Anglicized as heterotopy /hEt<schwa>"rQt<schwa>pi/.L19.
[mod.L, f. as HETERO- + Gk -topia, f. topos place: see -IA1, -Y3.]
Biol. & Med. The presence of an organ or other tissue at a site where it is not normally found.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Hobson-Jobson /hQbs(<schwa>)n"dZQbs(<schwa>)n/ n.L19.
[Title of a famous collection (1886) of Anglo-Ind. wds by Yule & Burnell, repr. alt. (by Brit.
hearers) of Arab. Ya Hasan! Ya Husayn! O Hasan! O Husain!, a cry used by Muslims at the
ceremonies held at Muharram.]
Assimilation of adopted foreign words to the sound- pattern of the adopting language.
Chiefly in _the law of Hobson-Jobson_.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

holophrasis /hQl<schwa>(U)"freIsIs/ n. Pl. -phrases /-"freIsi:z/.M19. [f. HOLO- + Gk phrasis speech, phrase.]
The use of a single word to express a whole phrase or combination of ideas.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

honorific /Qn<schwa>"rIfIk/ a. & n.M17. [L honorificus, f. honor: see HONOUR n., -FIC.]
A adj. Of a word, phrase, etc.: implying or expressing respect. M17.
A. BURGESS The honorific Mr was used, to the disgust of the NCOs.
B n. An honorific word or phrase. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hypallage /hVI"pal<schwa>dZi:, hI-/ n.L16.
[Late L f. Gk hupallage, f. as HYPO- + allag- stem of allassein to exchange, f. allos other.]
Rhet. A figure of speech in which there is a transposition of the natural relations of two
elements of a proposition or a transference of an epithet.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
From Flowers of Rhetoric Shifting the application of words. Also, sometimes, a synonym
for metonymy (see Quintilian).
Example
Come stay with me and dine not.
Darksome wandering by the solitary night (instead of "Solitary wandering by
the darksome night") -- Angel Day
In the following example, Bottom tries to recall the dream he has had,
misquoting scripture as he goes.
Hypallage occurs by misaligning sense organs with their proper sensations:
The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen, man's hand is
not able to taste, his tongue to conceive, nor his heart to report, what
my dream was.  --Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream 4.1.211-214
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/HYPALLAGE.HTM >

hyperbaton /hVI"p<schwa>:b<schwa>tQn/ n.M16.
[L f. Gk huperbaton overstepping, f. huperbainein, f. as HYPER- + bainein walk.]
Gram. & Rhet. A figure of speech in which the logical order of words or phrases is inverted,
esp. for the sake of emphasis.
Adriana asks regarding men in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors:
Why should their liberty than ours be more?
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hyperbole /hVI"p<schwa>:b<schwa>li/ n.LME.
[L f. Gk huperbole excess, exaggeration, f. as HYPER- + ballein to throw.]
1 A figure of speech consisting in exaggerated or extravagant statement, used to express
strong feeling or produce a strong impression and not meant to be taken literally; an
instance of this. LME.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hypocoristic /<ssm>hVIp<schwa>(U)k<schwa>"rIstIk/ a. & n. Also -chor-.M18.
[Gk hupokoristikos, f. hupokorizesthai play the child, f. as HYPO- + kore child:
see -ISTIC.]
A adj. Of the nature of a pet name; pertaining to the habit of using endearing or
euphemistic terms. M18.
B n. A pet name, a familiar name. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hypophora - Hypophora - consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it: -- Copyright 1997 Robert Harris <http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm>

hyponym /"hVIp<schwa>(U)nIm/ n.E20. [f. HYPO- + -NYM.]
1 Taxon. A name made invalid by the lack of adequate contemporary description of the taxon it was intended
to designate. E20.
2 Ling. A word whose meaning implies or is included in that of another (e.g. scarlet and tulip, in relation
to red and flower respectively). M20.

hyponymy /hVI"pQnImi/ n.M20. [f. HYPO- after SYNONYMY.]
Ling. The relation of a word to another word of which the former is a hyponym.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hypostasize hypostasize /hVI"pQstsVIz/ v.t. Also -ise.E19. [f. prec. + -IZE.] Make into or represent as a substance or a concrete reality; embody, personify. hypostasi'zation n. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

hypotaxis /hVIp<schwa>(U)"taksIs/ n.L19.
[Gk hupotaxis subjection, f. hupotassein arrange under, f. as HYPO- + tassein arrange.]
Gram. The subordination of one clause to another. Opp. PARATAXIS.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

idio'glossia n. lallation; idiolalia: L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

idio'lalia n. the speaking of an invented or private language M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

idiolect /"IdI<schwa>lEkt/ n.M20. [f. IDIO- + DIA)LECT.]
The linguistic system of an individual, differing in some details from that of all other speakers of the
same dialect or language.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

illeism (n.) - affected or excessive use of the third-person pronoun 'he' or 'one', esp. in reference to oneself
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#H>:

ingressive /In"grEsIv/ a. & n.M17. [f. L ingress- (see INGRESS n.) + -IVE.]
A adj.
1 Having the quality or character of entering; spec. (Gram.) denoting entering upon action, inceptive. M17.
2 Phonet. Of a speech sound: made with intake of air. Of an airflow: inward. M20.B n. An ingressive verb;
an ingressive sound. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

isocolon /VIs<schwa>(U)"k<schwa>Ul<schwa>n/ n. rare.M16.
[f. as ISO- + COLON n.2]
Class. Pros. & Rhet. (The use of) a succession of phrases of equal (syllabic) length or structure.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

isogloss /"VIs<schwa>(U)glQs/ n.E20. [f. ISO- + Gk glossa tongue, word.]
Ling. (A line on a map indicating) the boundary of an area of occurrence of a significant linguistic feature
(as of vocabulary or pronunciation).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

klang association -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/issues/5/5-590.html>

koine /"k<revc>Ini:/ n.L19. [Gk koine fem. sing. of koinos common, ordinary.]
1 The common literary language of the Greeks from the close of classical Attic to the Byzantine era. L19.
2 Ling. A language or dialect common to a wide area in which different languages or dialects are, or were,
used locally; a lingua franca. L19.
3 A set of cultural or other attributes common to various groups. E20.
2 D. WHITELOCK The general use of the West Saxon literary koine.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

lallation /la"leI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M17.
[L lallatio(n-), f. lallat- pa. ppl stem of lallare sing lullaby: see -ATION.]
1 Infantile or imperfect speech, esp. the repetition of meaningless sounds by babies; idioglossia. M17.
2 Pronunciation of what should be the phoneme /r/ as if /l/.  Also called
lambdacism. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

lambdacism /"lamd<schwa>sIz(<schwa>)m/ n. Also <obsolete>labd-.M17.
[Late L la(m)bdacismus f. Gk la(m)bdakismos, f. la(m)bda (see prec.) + -ismos -ISM w. hiatus-filling k.]
1 Too frequent repetition of the phoneme /l/ or letter l in speaking or writing. M17. 2 Pronunciation of
what should be the phoneme /r/ (r) as if /l/ (l). Also called lallation. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

langue /lAg/ n. Pl. pronounced same.ME. [Fr. f. L lingua tongue, language.]
3 Ling. A language viewed as an abstract system used by a speech-community, in contrast to the actual
linguistic behaviour of individuals. Opp. PAROLE n. 4. E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Lautgesetz - sound law: an observation of regular sound correspondences/sound change between members of a language family, permitting reconstruction of a presumed ancestral ("proto-") language from which the attested languages can have developed by regular processes
-- From a posting by Peter T. Daniels in the Usenet newsgroup sci.lang

ligature /"lIg<schwa>t<long s><schwa>/ n. & v.LME. [Late L ligatura, f. as LIGATE: see -URE.]
A character or type formed by two or more letters joined together; a monogram. Also, a stroke connecting two
letters. L17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

lipogram /"lIp<schwa>gram/ n.E18. [Back-form. f. Gk lipogrammatos: see next, -GRAM.]
A composition from which the writer systematically omits a certain letter or certain letters.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

litotes /lVI"t<schwa>Uti:z/ n.L16. [Late L f. Gk litotes, f. litos single, simple, meagre.]
Rhet. Ironical understatement, spec. in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of the contrary,
as no small amount, no mean feat, etc. Also called meiosis.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

logogram /"lQg<schwa>gram/ n.E19. [f. Gk logos word (see LOGOS) + -GRAM.]
2 A sign, symbol, or character representing a word, as in shorthand or some ancient writing systems. Also,
such a sign etc. used to represent part of a word. M19.
3 gen. A symbol or device designed to represent in simple graphic form an object, concept, or attitude; an
organization’s emblem or badge, a logotype. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

logogriph /"lQg<schwa>grIf/ n.L16. [Fr. logogriphe, f. Gk logos word (see LOGOS) + griphos fishing-basket, riddle.]
A kind of enigma in which a certain word and other words that can be formed out of all or any of its letters
are to be guessed from synonyms of them introduced into a set of verses. Also, an anagram, a puzzle involving
anagrams.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

logomisia (n.) - disgust for particular words (W)
-- http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#J

lucus a non lucendo -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.bartleby.com/81/10615.html>

macaronic /mak<schwa>"rQnIk/ a. & n.E17. [mod.L macaronicus f. It. <obsolete> macaronico, later maccheronico,
joc. f. macaroni: see prec., -IC.]
A adj. <obsolete>1 Of the nature of a jumble or medley. E17–E19.
2 (Of verse) of a burlesque form in which vernacular words are introduced into the context of another
language, esp. Latin, with appropriate inflections etc.; resembling the mixed jargon of such poetry. M17.
<obsolete>3 Pertaining to a macaroni; foppish, conceited. rare. Only in E19.
B n. <obsolete>1 A jumble, a medley. Only in E17.
2 Macaronic language or composition; in pl., macaronic verses. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

macrology /ma"krQl<schwa>dZi/ n. Now rare or obs. Also (earlier) in L form <obsolete> -logia.M16.
[Late L macrologia f. Gk makrologia, f. as MACRO- + -LOGY.]
In Rhet., the use of redundant words or phrases; gen. prolixity of speech.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

meiosis /mVI"<schwa>UsIs/ n. Pl. -oses /-"<schwa>Usi:z/.M16. [mod.L f. Gk meiosis, f. meioun lessen, f. meion less: see - OSIS.]
1 Rhet.a A figure of speech by which something is intentionally presented as smaller, less important, etc.,
than it really is. Now rare. M16.
b = LITOTES. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

(a)melioration /<schwa><ssm>mi:lI<schwa>"reI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M17.
[Fr.: see prec., and cf. MELIORATION.]
1 The action of making something better; the condition of being made better; improvement;
Ling. development of a more favourable meaning or connotation, melioration (opp. pejoration). M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

mendaciloquence (n.) -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://members.aol.com/tsuwm/mno.htm#M>

merism (n.) - a pairing of contrasted terms to express a totality, and thus form a synecdoche, e.g. "now and then" (W)
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#M>

metalepsis /mEt<schwa>"lEpsIs/ n.M16.
[L f. Gk metalepsis, f. metalambanein to substitute, f. as META- + lambanein take.]
A rhetorical figure consisting in the metonymical substitution of one word for another which is itself
figurative. -- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

metallage (n.) - When a word or phrase is treated as an object within another expression.
Example
      A lady's "verily" is as potent as a lord's. --Shakespeare, The Winter's Tale 1.1.50-51
      Their drink is sour: they have committed whoredom continually: her rulers with shame
        do love, "Give ye."
            --Hosea 4:19
      I don't want to hear another "I'll do it later." Do it now.
-- Silva Rhetoricae http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/METALLAGE.HTM

metanalysis /mEt<schwa>"nalIsIs/ n.E20. [f. META- + ANALYSIS.]
Philol. Reinterpretation of the division between words or syntactic units (e.g. of a naddre as an addre in ME
to give mod. adder).
me'tanalyse v.t. subject to or alter by metanalysis M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

metaplasm /"mEt<schwa>plaz(<schwa>)m/ n.L16.
[In sense 1 f. L metaplasmus, Gk metaplasmos, f. metaplassein: see prec. In sense 2 f. META- + PROTO)PLASM.]
1 In Rhet., the transposition of words from their usual or natural order; in Gram., the alteration of a word
by addition, removal, or transposition of letters or syllables. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

metathesis /mE"taTIsIs, mI-/ n. Pl. -theses /-TIsi:z/.L16.
[Late L f. Gk, f. metatithenai transpose, change, f. as META- + tithenai put, place.]
1 Ling. The transposition of sounds or letters in a word; the result of such a transposition.
Formerly also, the transposition of words. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

metonymy /mI"tQnImi/ n.M16.
[Late L metonymia f. Gk metonumia lit. 'change of name’, f. as META- + onuma name: see -NYM, -Y3.]
1 The substitution of a word denoting an attribute or adjunct of a thing for the word denoting the thing
itself; an instance of this. M16.
2 A thing used or regarded as a substitute for or symbol of something else. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Mischsprache /"mI<long s><long s>pra:x<schwa>/ n. Pl. -en /-<schwa>n/.M20. [G.] = MIXED language.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

mogigraphia - mogi-
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, © Arthur S. Reber, 1995, via
--
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/152486>

mondegreen
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/1299>

Monepic -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://rinkworks.com/words/linguistics.shtml>

monologophobia -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://rinkworks.com/words/linguistics.shtml>

Mummerset /"mVm<schwa>sEt/ n.M20. [Prob. f. prec. after Somerset.]
An imaginary rustic county in the West of England; its dialect, a pseudo-rustic dialect used by actors.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

mumpsimus /"mVmpsIm<schwa>s/ n. Now literary.M16.
[Erron. for L sumpsimus in quod in ore sumpsimus 'which we have taken into the mouth’ (in the
Eucharist), in a story of an illiterate priest who, when corrected, replied 'I will not change
my old mumpsimus for your new sumpsimus’.]
1 An obstinate adherent of old ways, in spite of clear evidence of their error; an ignorant and bigoted
opponent of reform. Formerly also loosely, an old fogey. M16.
2 A traditional custom or notion obstinately adhered to although shown to be unreasonable. M16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

mussitation /mVsI"teI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n. Now rare.M17. [Late L mussitatio(n-), f. as prec.: see -ATION.]
Muttering, murmuring; Med. movement of the lips without vocal sound.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

mytheme n. [-EME] an element of a myth regarded as a unit of structure L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

noa /"n<schwa>U<schwa>/ n. & a.E20. [Haw. (Maori, Tahitian) = (a thing) free from taboo, ordinary.]
Ling. (Designating) an expression substituted for a taboo word or phrase.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

nomic /"nQmIk/ a.2L19. [Gk nomikos, f. nomos law: see -IC.]
Philos. Pertaining to or concerned with a discoverable scientific or logical law.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

nosism /"nQsIz(<schwa>)m/ n. Now rare.E19. [f. L nos we + -ISM.]
1 A selfish attitude in a group of people, corresponding to egotism in an individual. E19.
2 The use of 'we’ in stating one’s own opinions. E19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

nothosonomia (n.) - calling someone a bastard (W)
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html>
compare nothomorph /"nQT(U)m:f/ n.M20. [f. Gk nothos bastard, crossbred + -MORPH.] Bot. A particular form or variant of a given hybrid.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

objective correlative -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.xrefer.com/entry/344442>

obviative /"QbvI<schwa>tIv, -eItIv/ n. & a.L19. [f. prec. + -IVE, after Fr. obviatif.]
Ling.A n. A case in the Algonquian family of N. American Indian languages that marks a third person other
than the principal one in a given context. L19.B adj.  Designating, in, or pertaining to this case. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

omphalopsychites (n.) -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://www.rice.edu/armadillo/Mlist/archivejul97/msg00047.html>

onomasiology /<ssm>Qn<schwa>(U)meIsI"Ql<schwa>dZi/ n.E20.
[f. Gk onomasia name + -OLOGY.]
The branch of knowledge that deals with the principles of nomenclature, esp. with regard to regional,
social, or occupational variation.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

onomastic /Qn<schwa>"mastIk/ n. & a.L16. [Gk onomastikos pertaining to naming, f. onoma name: see - IC.]
A n. <obsolete>1 =
ONOMASTICON. Only in L16.
<obsolete>2 A writer of an onomasticon; a lexicographer. L16–E18.
3 In pl. (treated as sing.). The branch of knowledge that deals with the origin and formation of (esp.
personal) proper names. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

onomasticon /Qn<schwa>(U)"mastIkQn/ n.E18.
[Gk, use as n. (sc. biblion book) of neut. of onomastikos: see prec.]
A vocabulary or alphabetic list of (esp. personal) proper names. Also, a vocabulary of nouns; a general lexicon.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

onomatopoeia /<ssm>Qn<schwa>(U)mat<schwa>"pi:<schwa>/ n.L16.
[Late L f. Gk onomatopoiia making of words, f. onomatopoios, f. as ONOMATO- + -poios making, f. poiein make,
create: see -IA1.]
1 The formation of a word by an imitation of the sound associated with the thing or action designated; the
principle or practice of forming words by this process. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

oratio obliqua - indirect speech: reported speech, or relating by another that is modified and indirect (W)
-- <http://stommel.tamu.edu/~baum/skb_dict.html#O>
oratio obliqua /QrA:tIU Q"bli:kw, QreI(I)U "blVIkw/ n.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

oxytone /"QksIt<schwa>Un/ n. & a.M18. [Gk oxutonos, f. as OXY- + tonos pitch, accent, TONE n.]
Chiefly Gk Gram. (A word) having an acute accent on the last syllable.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

palindrome /"palIndr<schwa>Um/ n. & a.E17.
[Gk palindromos running back again, f. palin back, again + drom-, dramein run.]
A n. 1 A word, phrase, etc., that reads the same backwards as forwards. E17.
2 transf.a Mus. A piece in which the second half is a retrograde repetition of the first half. M20.
b Biol. A palindromic sequence of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. L20.
B adj. That reads or runs the same backwards as forwards. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

palinode /"palIn<schwa>Ud/ n.L16.
[(Fr. <obsolete>palinode, palinodie f.) L palinodia f. Gk palinodia, f. palin again + ode song, ode.]
An ode in which the writer retracts a view or sentiment expressed in an earlier poem. Also gen., a
recantation; spec. in Sc. Law, a recantation in court of a defamatory statement.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

pangram
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://rinkworks.com/words/pangrams.shtml>

paradiastole (n.) - par-a-di-as'-to-lee from Gk. para, "beside, along" and stolee, "a sending" -- curry favell
A figure by which one extenuates something in order to flatter or soothe, or by which one refers to a vice as a virtue. Example: Said of a proud man: "He is confident"
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/PARADIASTOLE.HTM

paragoge /par<schwa>"g<schwa>UdZi/ n.M16.
[Late L f. Gk paragoge derivation, addition to the end of a syllable, f. as PARA-1 + agoge carrying,
leading.]
Philol. The addition of a letter or syllable to a word, either in the course of a language’s
development (e.g. English peasan-t),
or, as in Hebrew, to give emphasis or modify the meaning.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paragram <obsolete> n.L17–M18. [f. Gk ta para gramma skommata jokes by the letter.]
A play on words consisting in the alteration of one letter or group of letters of a word, esp. an
initial letter.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paralinguistic /par<schwa>lI<ng>"gwIstIk/ a.M20. [f. PARA-1 + LINGUISTIC.]
Ling. Of or pertaining to
paralanguage or paralinguistics.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paralanguage /"par<schwa>la<ng>gwIdZ/ n.M20. [f. PARA-1 + LANGUAGE n.1]
Ling. The system of non-phonemic but vocal factors in speech, such as tone of voice, tempo of speech,
and sighing, by which communication is assisted.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paraph /"paraf/ n. & v.LME. [Fr. paraphe, -afe f. med.L paraphus syncopated form of paragraphus PARAGRAPH n.]
A n. <obsolete>1 A paragraph. LME–L16.2 A flourish made after a signature. L16.
B v.t. <obsolete>1 Divide into paragraphs. Only in LME.
2 Add a paraph to; sign, esp. with one’s initials. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Paraphasia is the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases.
One symptom commonly reported in victims of Wernicke's aphasia, a speech comprehension deficit caused
by damage to Wernicke's area in the upper temporal lobe, is semantic paraphasia. This consists of
"pronunciation of a semantically related word rather than the actual target.
Types of paraphasia reported include using other words within the same superordinate category as the
target (cat rather than dog), using the superordinate category itself (animal rather than dog), and
complex circumlocutions.
The preceding fragments are from
<http://cognitrn.psych.indiana.edu/busey/Q301/chjky.html>.

paraplasm - In _Glossary of Linguistic Terminology_, by Mario Pei, Columbia University Press, copyright 1966 by Mario Pei, there is the following definition:
    The replacement of an established form by a newly coined one (skiddo of the 1920s replaced by the later scram).
At <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~chambers/ling%20&%20lg.html> there is the entry:
    A phonological argument for the derivation of the F-subclass. Papers in Linguistics 4: 433-46.
    A paraplasm of English grammars. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/ Revue canadienne de linguistique l6: 113-38
An appeal to the author of that paper, Jack Chambers, received the following answer:
    I intended it as a metaphor for the "new-style" grammars that were coming into vogue, as compared to the traditional
    grammars we were all used to.

parasynesis -
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers

parataxis /par<schwa>"taksIs/ n. Pl. -taxes /-"taksi:z/.M19.
[Gk = placing side by side, f. paratassein place side by side, f. as PARA-1 + tassein arrange:
see TAXIS.]
Gram. The placing of clauses or phrases one after another, without the use of connecting words to
indicate the relation (of coordination or subordination) between them. Opp. HYPOTAXIS.
paratactic, paratactical adjs. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

parechesis,
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- From <http://www.wam.umd.edu/~gaines/style.html>.© 1999 by Robert N. Gaines. All rights reserved.

parelcon 1.The use of redundant or superfluous terms. Often the use of two words in lieu of one.
2.A synonym for paragoge.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Multiterms/PARELCON.HTM>

parimion, also spelled paroemion, paromoeon /par-a-mi'-on/ [from Gk. para, "near" and homoios, "like"]
Alliteration taken to an extreme where nearly every word in a sentence begins with the
same consonant. Sometimes, simply a synonym for alliteration.
Example
The powers of prunes are prudent to provide potent pallitive prophylaxis of potential pooper problems,
priming you for purging. --Rob Bohnenberger
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/PAROEMION.HTM>

parole /p<schwa>"r<schwa>Ul, in sense A.4 usu. foreign parQl/ n., a., & v.L15.
[(O)Fr. f. Proto-Romance, f. L parabola PARABLE n. Cf. prec.]
4 Ling. The actual linguistic behaviour or performance of an individual, in contrast to the linguistic
system. Opp. LANGUE 3. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paronomasia /par<schwa>n<schwa>"meIzI<schwa>/ n.L16. [L f. Gk, f. as PARA-1 + onomasia naming.]
A play on words, a pun; punning.
paronomastic /-"mastIk/ a. characterized by or employing paronomasia E19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paronym /"par<schwa>nIm/ n.M19.
[Gk paronumon use as n. of neut. of paronumos adj., f. as PARA-1 + onuma name: see -NYM.]
1 A word which is a derivative or cognate of another. M19.
2 A word formed by partial translation of a foreign word. Opp. HETERONYM 2. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

paroxytone /p<schwa>"rQksIt<schwa>Un/ n. & a.M18. [mod.L paroxytonus f. Gk paroxutonos, f. as PARA-1, OXYTONE.]
Gram. (esp. Gk Gram.).A n. A word having an acute accent or stress on the penultimate syllable. M18.
B adj. Of or pertaining to a paroxytone or paroxytones. L19.
paroxy'tonic a. characterized by or employing paroxytone accent or stress L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

parrhesia /p<schwa>"ri:zI<schwa>, -sI<schwa>/ n.L16.
[med.L f. Gk parresia free-spokenness, f. as PARA-1 + rhesis speech.] Chiefly Rhet. Frankness or boldness of speech.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

pasigraphy /p<schwa>"sIgr<schwa>fi/ n.L18. [f. Gk pasi for all + -GRAPHY.]
A system of writing for universal use and understanding, with characters representing ideas instead
of words.
pasi'graphic a. L18.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Patavinity /pat<schwa>"vInIti/ n.E17. [L patavinitas, f. as prec.: see -ITY.]
The dialectal characteristics of the Latin of Patavium (now Padua), esp. as found in Livy’s writings;
gen. (a) provincialism in style.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

patronymic /patr<schwa>"nImIk/ n. & a.E17.
[Late L patronymicus f. Gk patronumikos, f. patronumos, f. patr-, pater father + onuma name: see -NYM, -IC.]
A n. A name derived from that of a father or ancestor, esp. by addition of an affix indicating such descent;
a family name. E17.B adj. Designating such a name or such an affix. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

pejoration /pi:dZ<schwa>"reI<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M17.
[med.L pejoratio(n-), f. as prec.: see -ATION.]
1 Worsening, deterioration; an instance of this; spec. (a) depreciation in value. M17.
2 Ling. Development of a less favourable meaning or connotation. Opp. amelioration, melioration. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

periphrasis /p<schwa>"rIfr<schwa>sIs/ n. Pl. -ases /-<schwa>si:z/.M16.
[L f. Gk, f. periphrazein, f. as PERI- + phrazein declare.]
The figure of speech which consists in expressing a meaning by many or several words instead of by few or one;
a roundabout way of speaking or writing; (a) circumlocution.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

perpilocutionist
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- David Ropp, University of Arizona, <http://grad.math.arizona.edu/~ropp/defs.html>

phatic /"fatIk/ a.E20.
[f. Gk phatos spoken or phatikos assertory: see -IC.]
Of speech or speech sounds: serving to establish or maintain social relationships rather than to impart information.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

philophronesis - The pacification of an adversary by use of mild speech or promises.
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/VERIFICANDA/PHILOPHRONESIS.HTM>

phonaestheme /"f<schwa>UnIsTi:m/ n. Also *-nes-.M20.
[f. PHONE n.1 + AESTH(ETIC + -EME.]
Ling. A phoneme or group of phonemes with semantic associations as a result of its recurrent appearance in words of
similar meaning.phonaes'thesia, phonaes'thesis ns. sound symbolism; the use of phonaesthemes: M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

phono'centrism n. (Ling.) the tendency to regard speech as more fundamental than writing L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

pleonasm /"pli:<schwa>naz(<schwa>)m/ n. Also pleonasmus /pli:<schwa>"nazm<schwa>s/.M16.
[Late L pleonasmus f. Gk pleonasmos, f. pleonazein be superfluous, f. pleion more.]
1 The use of more words than are necessary to convey meaning; redundancy of expression, either as a fault of style or
as a figure purposely used for emphasis or clarity; an instance of this; a superfluous word or phrase. M16.
<obsolete>b Gram. The addition of a superfluous letter or syllable to a word. rare. L17–M18.
2 gen. Superfluity, redundancy; something superfluous or redundant. E17.
b Anat. & Med. (A growth showing) excess in size or esp. number of parts. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

ploce /"plQsi:/ n.L16.
[Late L f. Gk ploke plaiting, f. plekein to plait.]
Rhet. The repetition of a word in an altered or more expressive sense or for the sake of emphasis.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

polyptoton - Repeating a word, but in a different form. Using a cognate of a given word in close proximity.
Example
With eager feeding food doth choke the feeder.
--John of Gaunt in Richard II 2.1.37
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/POLYPTOTON.HTM>

polysemy /"pQlIsi:mi, p<schwa>"lIsImi/ n. Also in mod.L form polysemia /pQlI"si:mI<schwa>/.E20.
[f. as prec. + -Y3.]
Ling. The fact of having several meanings; the possession of multiple meanings.'polyseme n. a word having several or
multiple meanings M20. poly'semic a. of or pertaining to polysemy; having several meanings, exhibiting polysemy: M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

polysyndeton /pQlI"sIndIt(<schwa>)n/ n.L16.
[mod.L, f. as POLY- after ASYNDETON.]
Rhet. The use of several conjunctions or (usu.) the same conjunction several times, in quick succession.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

privative /"prIv<schwa>tIv/ a. & n.L16.
[Fr. privatif, -ive or L privativus denoting privation, f. privat- : see PRIVATION, -IVE.]
A adj. 1 Having the quality of depriving a person or thing. L16.
2 Consisting in or characterized by the removal of or lack of some attribute normally or properly present;
gen. characterized by the absence of a quality. L16.
b Of a term: denoting privation or absence of a quality or attribute. M17.
3 Gram. Of a particle or affix: expressing privation or negation. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

proclitic /pr<schwa>U"klItIk/ a. & n.M19.
[mod.L procliticus, f. Gk proklinein lean forward, after late L encliticus ENCLITIC.]
Gram.A adj. Designating a word so unemphatic as to be pronounced as if part of the following word, as an in an ounce,
at in at home. M19.B n. A proclitic word. M19. proclitically adv. E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

prolepsis /pr<schwa>U"lEpsIs, -"li:psIs/ n. Pl. -lepses /-"lEpsi:z, -"li:-/.LME.
[Late L f. Gk prolepsis, f. prolambanein anticipate, f. as PRO-2 + lambanein take.]
1 Rhet. Orig., a brief introductory summary to an argument. Later, a preface to an argument intended to anticipate and
preclude objection. LME.
b The anticipatory use of an adjective. M19.
2 The representation of a future act, state, etc., as already done or existing; anticipation; an instance of this. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

proparalepsis - The addition of a lettter or syllable to the end of a word. A kind of metaplasm.  synonym paragoge
Examples
When "slack" becomes "slacken" without any change of meaning.
In Love's Labour's Lost Holofernes parodies this figure. Both "sore" and "sorel" named kinds of deer. By adding an "L" [= 50 in Roman numerals] through paragoge, he makes "50" deer: If sore be sore, then L to sore makes fifty sores o' sorel --Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost 4.2.59-61
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/PARAGOGE.HTM>

prosonomasia - See paronomasia.

prosopopoeia /prQs<schwa>p<schwa>"pi:<schwa>/ n.M16.
[L f. Gk prosopopoiia representation in human form, f. as prec. + poiein make.]
1 Rhet.a A figure of speech in which an imaginary or absent person is represented as speaking or acting; the
introduction of a pretended speaker. M16.
b A figure of speech in which an inanimate or abstract thing is personified or given human characteristics. L16.
2 transf. A person or thing as the embodiment of a quality. E19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

prosthesis /"prQsTIsIs, in sense 2 usu. prQs"Ti:sIs/ n. Pl. -theses /- TIsi:z, in sense 2 usu. -"Ti:si:z/.M16.
[Late L f. Gk, f. prostithenai add, f. PROS- + tithenai place.]
1 Gram. The addition of a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word. M16.
2 a = PROSTHETICS. Now rare. E18.
b An artificial replacement for a part of the body. E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

provection /pr<schwa>"vEk<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.M17.
[Late L provectio(n-), f. as prec.: see -ION.]
<obsolete>1 Proficiency; advancement. Only in M17.
2 Philol.a The changing or mutating of consonants according to Grimm’s Law; the mutation of voiced consonants in
Celtic languages to corresponding voiceless consonants. M19.
b The transposition of the final letter of a word to a succeeding one (as in English newt, nickname). M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

psittacism /"sIt<schwa>sIz(<schwa>)m/ n.L19.
[f. Gk psittakos parrot + -ISM.]
The mechanical repetition of previously received ideas or images, reflecting neither true reasoning nor feeling;
repetition of words or phrases parrot-fashion; an instance of this.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

purr-word
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://jinx.sistm.unsw.edu.au/~greenlft/1993/126/126p15.htm>

quadriliteralism
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers
(quadriliteral):
A adj. Consisting of four letters; spec. (of a Semitic root) having four consonants instead of the usual three. L18.B n. A word of four letters; a (Semitic) root containing four consonants. L18.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

quaesitio quesitio : investigation, interrogation. From <http://sunsite.ubc.ca/LatinDictionary/HyperText/>
With frames: <http://sunsite.ubc.ca/LatinDictionary/>

quote fact
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers

rebus /"ri:b<schwa>s/ n. & v.E17.
[Fr. rébus f. L rebus abl. pl. of res thing, in de rebus quae geruntur lit. 'concerning the things that are taking
place’, title given in 16th-cent. Picardy to satirical pieces containing riddles in picture form.]
A n. A representation of a word or phrase by pictures, symbols, arrangement of letters, etc., which suggest the word
or phrase, or the syllables of which it is made up; spec. a device, often of heraldic appearance, suggesting
the name of its bearer. E17.
G. NORMAN IOU..is a rebus for 'I owe you.’
B v.t. Infl. -s(s)-. Mark with a rebus or rebuses. rare. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

reification /'ri:IfI"keI<long s>(<schwa>)n, 'reIIf-/ n.M19.
[f. L res, re- thing + -FICATION.]
The mental conversion of a person or abstract concept into a thing. Also, depersonalization, esp. (in Marxist theory)
that due to capitalist industrialization in which the worker is considered as a commodity.
reificatory a. of, pertaining to, or characterized by reification M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

rheme /ri:m/ n.L19.
[Gk rhema, -atos that which is said, word, saying.]
1 Logic. An utterance that has the property of signification, as distinct from its identity as sound and form. Also,
the part of a proposition or sentence which expresses a single idea. L19.
2 Ling. The part of a sentence giving new information about the theme or topic of an utterance or discourse.
Cf. COMMENT n. 5. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

rhopalic /r<schwa>(U)"palIk/ a. & n.L17.
[Late L rhopalicus, f. Gk rhopalos club, tapered cudgel: see - IC.]
Pros.A adj. Of a passage or line of verse: in which each word contains one syllable more than the word immediately
preceding it. L17.
B n. A rhopalic line or passage. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

sandhi /"sandi/ n.E19.
[Skt samdhi combination.]
Ling. Modification in the sound (and form) of a morpheme under the influence of a following or preceding sound, either
in a sentence (external sandhi), e.g. in English, the change from a to an before a vowel, or, in word formation,
within a word (internal sandhi).
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Scesis Onomaton1.A sentence constructed only of nouns and adjectives (typically in a regular pattern).
2.A series of successive, synonymous expressions.
Example
A man faithful in friendship, prudent in counsels, virtuous in conversation, gentle in communication, learned in all liberal sciences, eloquent in utterance, comely in gesture, an enemy to naughtiness, and a lover of all virtue and godliness. --Peacham
-- Silva Rhetoricae <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/scesis%20onomaton.htm>

Schlimmbesserung
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- <http://members.aol.com/tsuwm/Frame1.html>

semiotic /si:mI"QtIk, sEmI-/ a. & n. Also semei-.E17.
[Gk semeiotikos significance, f. semeioun interpret as a sign, f. semeion (see SEMIOLOGY): see -OTIC, -IC, -ICS.]
A adj. 1 Med. Of or pertaining to symptomatology. E17.
<obsolete>2 Symbolic, serving to convey meaning. rare. Only in L18.
3 Of or pertaining to semiotics or the production of meanings by sign-systems. E20.
B n. I In pl. (usu. treated as sing.).
1 Med. Symptomatology. L17.
2 The branch of knowledge that deals with the production of meanings by sign-systems in various fields, esp. in
language or literature. L19.II sing.
3 = sense B.2 above. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

sigmatism n.
(a) (an instance of) the marked use or repetition of s;
(b) defective articulation of sibilants: L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

simile /"sImIli/ n. & v.LME.
[L, neut. of similis like, SIMILAR.]
A n. 1 A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another of a different kind, as an illustration
or ornament. LME.
<obsolete>2 Resemblance, similarity. Only in 17.
B v.t. Pres. pple & vbl n. simileing. Express by a simile. rare. E18.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

spoonerism /"spu:n<schwa>rIz(<schwa>)m/ n.M19.
[f. Spooner (see below) + -ISM.]
<obsolete>1 The theory or opinions of the Revd W. A. Spooner (1844–1930), English educationist.
Only in M19.
2 [f. Spooner’s tendency to make such transpositions.]
A (usu. accidental) transposition of the initial sounds, or other parts, of two or more spoken words, as
fighting liars from lighting fires. E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

snarl word - See "purr-word".

Sprachgefühl /"<long s>pra:xg<schwa>fy:l/ n.E20. [G, f. Sprache speech + Gefühl feeling.]
Intuitive feeling for the essential character of a language, linguistic instinct;
gen. the essential character of a language.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Stammbaumtheorie /-teo'ri:/ the linguistic theory likening relationships between languages to genetic relationships.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

stichomythia /stIk<schwa>(U)"mITI<schwa>/ n.M19.
[mod.L f. Gk stikhomuthia, f. stikhos STICHOS + muthos speech, talk.]
Dialogue in alternate lines of verse, used in disputation in Greek drama, and characterized by antithesis and
repetition. Also, a modern imitation of this.stichomythic a. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

subreption /s<schwa>b"rEp<long s>(<schwa>)n/ n.E17.
[L subreptio(n-), f. subrept- pa. ppl stem of subripere, f. as SUB- + rapere snatch: see -ION. Cf. SURREPTION n.1]
1 The action of obtaining something by surprise or misrepresentation; an attempt to do this;
spec. in Eccl. & Sc. Law, the obtaining of a dispensation, gift, etc., by suppression of the truth. Cf. OBREPTION. E17.
2 A fallacious or deceptive argument, comment, etc.; a misrepresentation. Also, an inference drawn from this. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

sumpsimus /"sVm(p)sIm<schwa>s/ n.M16.
[L, 1st person pl. perf. indic. of sumere take: see MUMPSIMUS.]
A correct expression taking the place of an incorrect but popular one.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

superordinate /su:p<schwa>r"<revc>:dIn<schwa>t, sju:-/ a., n., & v.E17.
[f. SUPER- 2 + ORDINATE a. & n., v., after subordinate.]
A adj. Superior in relation to others; higher in rank or order. Freq. foll. by to. E17.
B n. A superordinate person or thing; a superior;
spec. (Ling.) a word whose meaning implies or includes that of another (cf. HYPONYM 2). E19.
C v.t. Place in a superior position to. rare. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

suprasegmental /su:pr<schwa>sEg"mEnt(<schwa>)l, sju:-/ a. & n.M20. [f. SUPRA- + SEGMENTAL.]
Ling. (Designating) a feature or features of a sound or sequence of sound other than those constituting the consonantal
and vocalic segments, as stress and intonation in English.suprasegmentally
adv. in terms of suprasegmental features M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

syllepsis /sI"lEpsIs/ n. Pl. syllepses /-i:z/.LME.
[Late L f. Gk sullepsis taking together, f. as SYN- + lepsis taking.]
Gram. & Rhet. A figure of speech in which a word, or a particular form or inflection of a word, is made to cover two or
more functions in the same sentence whilst agreeing grammatically with only one (e.g. a sing. vb serving as predicate
to two subjects, sing. and pl.), or is made to apply to two words in different senses (e.g. literal and metaphorical).
Cf. ZEUGMA.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

symploce /"sImpl<schwa>si/ n.M16.
[Late L f. Gk sumploke an interweaving, f. as SYM- + plekein: see prec.]
Rhet. The repetition of one word or phrase at the beginning, and of another at the end, of successive clauses or
sentences; a combination of anaphora and epistrophe.
The combination of anaphora and epistrophe: beginning a series of lines, clauses, or sentences with the
same word or phrase while simultaneously repeating a different word or phrase at the end of each element
in this series.
Examples
"Against yourself you are calling him,
against the laws you are calling him,
against the democratic constitution you are calling him" --Aeschines
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synaeresis /sI"nI<schwa>rIsIs/ n. Also *syner-.L16.
[Late L f. Gk sunairesis, f. sun- SYN- + hairesis, f. hairein take.]
1 Gram. & Pros. Contraction of two or more syllables into one, esp. of two vowels into a diphthong or a simple vowel.
Opp. diaeresis. L16.
2 The contraction of a gel accompanied by the separating out of liquid; Med. the contraction of a blood clot into a
firm seal. M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synaesthesia /sInIs"Ti:zI<schwa>/ n. Also *synes-. Pl. -iae /-Ii:/.L19.
[f. SYN- after anaesthesia.]
1 Psychol. The production of a mental sense-impression relating to one sense by the stimulation of another sense,
as in coloured hearing. Also, a sensation produced in one part of the body by stimulation of another part. L19.
2 The use of metaphors in which terms relating to one kind of sense-impression are used to describe sense- impressions
of other kinds. M20.
3 Ling.a The expression of more than one kind of sense-impression by the same word. M20.
b The transfer of the meaning of a word from one kind of sensory experience to another. M20.
c = PHONAESTHESIA. L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synaloepha /sIn<schwa>"li:f<schwa>/ n. Also -phe /-fi/, *-leph-.M16.
[Late L f. Gk sunaloiphe, f. sunaleiphein smear or melt together, f. sun- SYN- + aleiphein anoint.]
Gram. & Pros. Contraction of two syllables into one; esp. (in verse) the obscuration of a vowel at the end of a word
when the next word begins with a vowel.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synchysis /"sI<ng>kIsIs/ n. Pl. -chyses /-kIsi:z/.L16.
[Late L f. Gk sugkhusis, f. sugkhein mingle, confuse, f. sun- SYN- + khein pour.]
Rhet. A confused arrangement of words in a sentence, obscuring the meaning. L16.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

syncope /"sI<ng>k<schwa>lt;schwa<schwa>gt;pi/ n.LME.
[Late L f. Gk sugkope, f. sun- SYN- + kop- stem of koptein strike, cut off.]
1 Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness caused by an insufficient flow of blood to the brain, freq. due to blood
loss, shock, long standing, overheating, etc. Also occas., local loss of blood pressure in any part of the body. LME.
2 Shortening of a word by omission of one or more syllables or letters in the middle; a word so shortened. M16.
<obsolete>3 Mus. = SYNCOPATION 2. M17–L18.
4 gen. A cutting short of something; sudden cessation or interruption. rare. M17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synecdoche /sI"nEkd<schwa>lt;schwa<schwa>gt;ki/ n.LME.
[L f. Gk sunekdokhe, f. sunekdekhesthai lit. 'take with something else’, f. sun- SYN- + ekdekhesthai take, take up.]
Gram. & Rhet. A figure of speech in which a more inclusive term is used for a less inclusive one or vice versa, as a
whole for a part or a part for a whole.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

synesis

Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/SS/SS051.html>

systole /"sIst(<schwa>)li/ n.M16.
[Late L, f. Gk sustole, f. sustellein contract.]
1 Class. Pros. The shortening of a vowel or syllable long by nature or position. Opp. DIASTOLE. M16.
2 Physiol. The phase of the heartbeat when the heart contracts and drives the blood outward. Also, any similar
rhythmical contraction (formerly esp. that of the lungs in breathing). Opp. DIASTOLE. L16.
sy'stolic a. L17.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

tachygraphy /ta"kIgr<schwa>fi/ n.M17.
[f. Gk takhus swift + -GRAPHY.]
Stenography, shorthand; spec. cursive characters; Egyptian hieratic writing; the medieval writing of Greek and Latin
with its many abbreviations and contractions.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

tautology /t<revc>:"tQl<schwa>dZi/ n. Also (earlier) in L form -logia.M16.
[Late L tautologia f. Gk, f. tautologos repeating what has been said: see TAUTO-, -LOGY.]
1 The contextual repetition, orig. of the same word or phrase, now usu. of the same idea or statement in different
words, esp. as a fault of style. M16.
2 An instance of this; a tautological phrase or expression. L16.
3 Philos. The absolute identification of cause and effect; an expression of this. rare. M17.4
Logic. A compound proposition which is unconditionally true for all the truth-possibilities of its component
propositions and by virtue of its logical form. E20.
b A proposition that is true by virtue of the meaning of its terms. M20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

theo'phoric a. = THEOPHOROUS L19.
the'ophorous a. [Gk theophoros, f. pherein to bear] bearing or containing the name of a god E20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

tmesis /"tmi:sIs/ n. Pl. tmeses /"tmi:si:z/.M16.
[Gk tmesis cutting, f. temnein cut.]
Gram. & Rhet. The separation of the elements of a compound word by the interposition of another word or words.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Traduttori traditori - "Translators are traitors"
-- Various

trope /tr<schwa>Up/ n. & v.M16.
[L tropus figure of speech f. Gk tropos turn, rel. to trepein to turn.]
A n. 1 Rhet. A figure of speech consisting in the use of a word or phrase in a sense other than that which is proper
to it;
gen. a figurative use of a word; figurative or metaphorical language. M16.
2 Eccl. Hist. A phrase, sentence, or verse introduced as a choral embellishment into part of the Mass or of the
breviary office. M19.
3 Philos. An argument advanced by a sceptic. M19.
4 Geom. The reciprocal of a node on a curve or surface. rare. M19.
B v.t. Eccl. Hist. Introduce (a trope) as a choral embellishment; embellish with a trope or tropes; add as a trope to.
Usu. in pass. L19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

univocalic /<ssm>ju:nIv<schwa>U"kalIk/ a. & n.M19.
[f. UNI- + VOCALIC.]
A adj. Of poetry or prose: composed using only one of the vowels. M19.
B n. A piece of univocalic writing. L20.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Ursprache /"u:r<long s>pra:x<schwa>/ n. Pl. -en /-<schwa>n/.E20.
[G, f. UR- + Sprache speech.]   = PROTO-LANGUAGE.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Wanderwort - wandering word: a word that's similar in several presumably unrelated (or only very distantly related) languages, but it's not possible to determine where it originated and where it was borrowed. The most familiar example is "wine."
-- From a posting by Peter T. Daniels in the Usenet newsgroup sci.lang

Wellentheorie /"vEl<schwa>nteo<ssm>ri:/ n.M20.
[G, f. Welle wave + Theorie theory.]
Philol. The theory that linguistic changes spread like waves over a speech-area and the dialects of adjacent districts
resemble each other most.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

witzelsucht
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.netfunny.com/rhf/jokes/89q2/disease.350.html>

wordfact,
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
--
<http://www.logophilia.com/WordSpy/index.html>

xenoepist
Definition suppressed pending permission from copyright holder. Meanwhile, see
-- The Random House Dictionary for Writers and Readers

zeugma /"zju:gm<schwa>/ n.LME.
[L f. Gk, lit. 'yoking', f. zeugnunai to yoke, rel. to zugon a yoke.]
A rhetorical figure by which a single word is made to refer to two or more words in a sentence, esp. when applying to
them in different senses. Formerly also = SYLLEPSIS.zeugmatic /-"matIk/
a. pertaining to or involving zeugma M19.
zeugmatically adv. so as to involve zeugma M19.
-- The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

This file was last modified 30 August 2001 15:24 GMT.